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Periodontitis

What is periodontitis?


There are many people who confuse periodontitis with  gingivitis. Even when the dentist identifies the difference, people do not imagine that the simple bleeding of the gums at the beginning-that is reminiscent of the familiar, gingivitis can lead to gradual loss of all their teeth! Periodontitis is an inflammation that develops in the tissues that support the teeth meaning, the gums and the bone. At its initial stage it is similar with gum disease, but when the inflammation progresses in the jaw bone, the body, trying to protect the teeth, destroys them. With this procedure, the teeth gradually lose their support, they begin to move and if you do not intervene directly, they will fall. The cause of periodontitis are different microbes that live in our mouths.


Factors contributing to periodontitis:


SMOKING. Considered one of the most important factors.
The DIABETES MELLITUS. When not checked.
THE STRESS. It reduces the body's defenses and makes it more vulnerable to infections.
NUTRITION. When a person does not eat properly the resistance of the organism drops.
THE TEETH GRINDING. It creates intense pressure on the bone causing periodontal tissue relaxation.
ORTHODONTIC DISFORMALITIES. Problematic tooth structure facilitates food impaction resulting in poor oral hygiene.
HORMONAL PROBLEMS. In women during adolescence and pregnancy.
GENETIC PREDISPOSITION.   Approximately 30% of the population is genetically susceptible to periodontitis.
VARIOUS DRUGS. Contraceptives, hypertension, Anticonvulsants, cause swelling of the gums.


H proper prevention
• The best way to prevent periodontal disease is to correctly brush the teeth, which requires the toothbrush to be placed with an angle between teeth and gums making small circular movements when brushing.
• Do not smoke. Smoking is a causative agent of periodontitis by reducing the local body's defenses allowing bacteria to act undisturbed.

The stages of treatment


The first phase of treatment is called conservative and includes the so-called subgingival (or radical) curettage. It is a process reminiscent of the classical cleansing  but is deeper, more specialized and is done partially and always using local anesthesia. It usually takes 4-5 visits to complete this phase. The aim of conservative periodontal therapy is the removal of bacteria from the roots of teeth, fighting inflammation and eliminating pockets that retain germs causing recurrence of periodontitis. In some cases, inside the pockets  special antibiotic formulations of slow release  are placed  which help fight pathogenic microorganisms.  In 1-2 months after curettage the effect of treatment  is assessed and at this point it is decided whether to proceed to the  second phase of treatment (surgery). In most cases, however, conservative treatment is sufficient. If, however,  surgical treatment is required it involves some subtle interventions that aim to either the surgical elimination of  very deep pockets or to the regeneration of lost bone by placing bone grafts or guided tissue regeneration membranes. Bone regeneration is the ideal treatment, and restores fully the damage caused by periodontitis, but it is only possible in a few cases.

 

Periodontitis